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2019年成考英语科目复习指导:怎样避免间接引语的错误

黑龙江成人高考网 发布时间:2019-07-31 16:37:33

  英语科目的考察中,特别是一些翻译题,经常会出现需要将直接引语变为间接引语的翻译凡是,为此,有些考生总会有时态或语态的变更错误,我们今天就来分析一下怎么避免这个问题。


  在英语里,我们可以用两种方法转述人的话语。第一种是直接引语(The Direct Speech);第二种是间接引语(The Indirect Speech),也可叫("The Reported Speech")。从直接引语转变为间接引语是一种表达行式的改变,不影响原意。例如:


  ① a. He said, "I am working now."


  b. He said that he was working then.


  ② a. She asked me, "Do you like to sing?"


  b. She asked me if I liked to sing.


  ③ a. "Go out!" the man said to the boy.


  b. The man ordered the boy to go out.


  ①b,②b,③b是间接引语,其形式和①a,②a,③a不同。


  间接引语是种常见的句法,用得很多。正因为用得多,出错的机会也多。下面便是些例子:


  ④ He said that he woulde tomorrow.


  这里的副词"tomorrow"要变成"the next day"。理由是:间接引语里的时间副词或短语, 一般上要把其中的时间向前推,如:tomorrow:the next day;today: that day;last night:the night before;now:then;ago:before that time等。


  ⑤ I asked what is wrong with him.


  这里的"is"要变成"was"。须知:主句"I asked"和分句"what is wrong with him"的动词时态必须配合。既然主句的动词"asked"是过去时态,分句的动词也要过去时态"was"。此外,动词时态一般上也要推前,因此简单过去时态(Simple Past Tense)要变成过去完成时态(Past Perfect Tense),如:went :had gone;left: had left.


  ⑥ John told her don't do that again.


  这里的"don't do"要变成"not to do"才对。理由是:祈使句变成间接引语时的形式是不定式动词:"to + verb / not to + verb",如:toe / not toe;to do / not to do.


  ⑦ She asked me where was I going.


  这里的"was I"词序不对, 要变成"I was"才是,因为间接疑问句(indirect question)里的词序和叙述句一样,是正常词序,不是倒装法,如:


  ⑧ He wanted to know who that girl was.


  ⑨ John asked Helen if she was free.


  ⑩ She asked me whether I could help her.


  如果词序是倒装形式,就错了:


  ...who was that girl.


  ...if was she free.


  ...whether could I help her.


  关于间接疑问句,还有一点必须注意的是,直接疑问句里的疑问词要照用, 如例⑧的"who"。如果没有疑问词,就要借重连接词"if"或"whether"之助,如例⑨和⑩便是。


  在结束本文之前,顺便提一提怎样把表示惊叹或愿望的直接引语转成间接引语。


  11. He said, "Alas! I am undone."


  12. "Bravo! You have done a good job, Mary," said the teacher.


  13. "Good Heaven!" Tom cried, "I'll never lie again."


  把11-13,转变为14-16时,可以用恰当的动词把深层的意思反映出来,甚至加些原文没有的字眼,也无所谓:


  14. He exclaimed that he was undone.


  15. The teacher praised Mary, saying that she had done a good job.


  16. Tom called upon Heaven to witness his determination not to lie again.


  由此可见,直接引语转变为间接引语并不难,只要考生在做题时时刻注意时态与语态的更替,基本上就不会出现问题。


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